Genetic DNA Paternity Testing CSI
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to
inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a person's
ancestry. Every person carries two copies of every gene, one inherited
from their mother, one inherited from their father. The human genome is
believed to contain about 25,000 genes. In addition to studying
chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a
broader sense includes biochemical tests for the presence or absence of
key proteins that signal aberrant versions of certain genes.
Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins.
Most of the time, testing is used to find changes that are associated
with inherited disorders. The results of a genetic test can confirm or
rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's
chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Several hundred
genetic tests are currently in use, and more are being developed.
Genetic testing usually involves examining a person's DNA - taken from
cells in a sample of blood or, occasionally, from other body fluids or
tissues - for some anomaly that flags a disease or disorder. The DNA
change can be relatively large: a missing or added piece of a
chromosome - even an entire chromosome - that is visible under a
microscope, or it can be extremely small, as little as one extra,
missing, or altered chemical base. Genes can be overexpressed (too many
copies), inactivated, or lost altogether. Sometimes, pieces of
chromosomes become switched, or transposed, so that a gene ends up in a
location where it is permanently and inappropriately turned on or off.
Since genetic testing may open up ethical or psychological problems,
genetic testing is often accompanied by genetic counseling.
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